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Geography Practical Friday, 28th July.
Geography (Objective & Practical/ Physical)
10:00am – 12:30pm
3. Formation of the following mountain via the diagram
(i) Convectional Rainfall.
(ii) Orographic or Relief Rainfall.
(i) Convectional Rainfall: This type of rainfall occurs in the areas intensely heated. Hot/Warm air, accompanied by rise in relative humidity takes place. The rising air becomes saturated and water vapour condenses with cloud being formed quickly. This results in the heavy rains, accompanied by thunder and lightning. Its features includes;
– It falls within short distances.
– It occurs in the afternoon.
– Convectional rainfall is normally accompanied by lightning and thunder.
(ii) Orographic or Relief Rainfall: In orographic rainfall moist air is forced to rise above a mountain/relief barrier, usually on the windward slopes of mountain. Rising air expands and becomes cooler and relative humidity rises and air becomes saturated. Water vapour condenses, cloud is formed with rainfall on the windward slope and descending air on the leeward side. Its features includes;
– It is also characterized by ascending and descending wind.
– Windward area has rainfall while leeward side has little or no rainfall.
Lapse rate: Lapse rate is defined as the rate of change in temperature with altitude or the decrease in air temperature as one ascends into the atmosphere. Therefore, Lapse rate is described as 0.65°C per 100m of ascent or 6.5°C per 1000m of ascent.
Inversion: Temperature inversion is defined as the increase in temperature with increasing altitude. Temperature could be lower at sea level, especially in valley ms almost enclosed by mountains than at height above such valleys.
Dew Point: It represents the temperature at which air becomes saturated with water vapor, leading to the formation of dew, fog, or clouds. In simpler terms, it is the temperature at which the air would need to be cooled for water vapor to condense into liquid water.
Weathering can be defined as the breaking down of rocks, soil, and minerals, as well as wood and artificial materials by contacting the atmosphere, water, and biological organisms of the Earth. Water, ice, acids, salts, plants, animals, and changes in temperature are all agents of weathering. Once a rock has been broken down, a process called erosion transports the bits of rock and mineral away.
(PICK ANY TWO)
(IV) Living organisms
(V) Nature of the parent rock
(VI) Nature of the climate (rainfall, temperature, humidity)
(PICK ANY THREE)
(i) *Solution On coming in contact with water many solids disintegrate and mix up as suspension in water. Soluble rock forming minerals like nitrates, sulphates, and potassium etc. are affected by this process. So, these minerals are easily leached out without leaving any residue in rainy climates and accumulate in dry regions.
*(ii) Hydration Minerals take up water and expand; this expansion causes an increase in the volume of the material itself or rock. Calcium sulphate takes in water and turns to gypsum, which is more unstable than calcium sulphate. This process is reversible and long, continued repetition of this process causes fatigue in the rocks and may lead to their disintegration.
*(iii) Reduction When oxidised minerals are placed in an environment where oxygen is absent, reduction takes place. Such conditions exist usually below the water table, in areas of stagnant water and waterlogged ground. The red colour of iron upon reduction turns to greenish or bluish grey.
*(iv) Carbonation Carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and soil air is absorbed by water, to form carbonic acid that acts as a weak acid. Calcium carbonates and magnesium carbonates are dissolved in carbonic acid and are removed in a solution without leaving any residue resulting in cave formation.
I. Renewable Resources: Renewable resources are natural resources that can be replenished over time, such as solar energy, wind energy, and water.
Examples: Solar energy, Wind energy
Examples: Coal, Oil
PICK ANY TWO
1. Reduces Pollution: Conserving non-renewable resources can reduce the amount of pollution and emissions released into the atmosphere.
2. Prevents Resource Depletion: Conserving non-renewable resources can help to prevent their depletion and ensure that they are available for future generations.
3. Increases Energy Efficiency: Conserving non-renewable resources can help to increase energy efficiency and reduce the amount of energy consumed.
4. Reduces Dependence on Fossil Fuels: Conserving non-renewable resources can help to reduce dependence on fossil fuels and promote the use of renewable energy sources.
5. Saves Money: Conserving non-renewable resources can help to save money by reducing the need for costly energy production and transportation.
(PICK ANY FOUR)
(i) Navigation and mapping: GPS enables accurate positioning on maps, allowing individuals to find their way and plan routes.
(ii) Surveying and mapping: GPS assists in surveying and mapping operations such as measuring distances, angles, and slopes.
(iii) Vehicle Tracking: GPS can be used to track objects or vehicles in real-time, allowing for efficient fleet management and improved security.
(iv) Disaster Management: GPS plays an important role in early warning systems for natural disasters like floods, hurricanes, and earthquakes.
(v) Goods Tracking: GPS is used to track the movement of goods to ensure they reach their destination safely.
(vi) Agriculture: GPS can be used to facilitate precision farming by providing vital information about local soil, terrain, and climate conditions.
PICK ANY TWO
8b(i) Arcuate: This delta consists of both coarse and fine sediments and has the shape of an inverted cone. It is crossed by many distributaries. Very good examples of Arcuate deltas are the Niger (Nigeria), Nile (Egypt) and Hwan – Ho.
(ii) Bird’s Foot: This delta consists of very fine materials referred to as “silt” with several long distributaries like the foot of a bird extending into the sea. The Mississippi Delta and the Delta of Omo River in Ethiopia are good examples.
(iii) Estuarine Delta: This delta is formed from materials deposited in the submerged mouth of a river. It takes the shape of the estuary. A typical example of this type of delta can be located in River Seine.
8c Some of the problem Associated with the application of GIS in Nigeria are below:
Lack of financial support due to misdirected priorities.
Lack of coordination among the RS and GIS community.
Lack of manpower and misplacement of expertise.
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