EXPO: NECO Geography Questions and Answers 2023/2024 – Theory and Objective (OBJ).

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NECO Geography Questions and Answers

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Geography Tuesday, 1st August.

Human and Regional Geography (Essay)
3:00pm – 5:00pm




(i) Agriculture: Rural settlements are traditionally associated with farming, where the majority of the residents are engaged in agricultural activities including crop cultivation, animal husbandry, and other related tasks.

(ii) Natural Resource Extraction: Rural areas are also important for the extraction of natural resources. This includes activities like mining, forestry, and fishing, which are major contributors to the economy of many countries.


(i) Economic Activities: Urban settlements are hubs for a diverse range of economic activities such as commerce, finance, industry, and services. They provide a wide range of jobs, attracting people from rural areas.

(ii) Cultural Exchange: Urban areas also serve as centers for cultural exchange, education, and innovation. They house a variety of institutions such as schools, universities, museums, and theaters, promoting diversity and development of the arts and sciences.

Number 1b



(I) Economic Opportunities: Cities offer more job opportunities with better wages. The promise of economic growth and upward mobility can induce urban to urban migration.

(ii) Education: The presence of prestigious educational institutions in some cities often attracts people for better educational opportunities.

(iii) Better Services: Larger or more developed cities generally have better public services such as healthcare, education, and transportation.

(iv) Lifestyle Changes: The allure of a more exciting lifestyle with cultural, entertainment, and recreational facilities can lead to migration.

(v) Housing: Cities with more affordable or better housing options can attract people from other urban areas.

(vi) Family Reasons: People may migrate to be closer to family or due to marital changes.

(vii) Social Networks: People often move to cities where they have existing social connections, which can provide support and help in finding jobs.

(viii) Environment: Some people migrate due to environmental conditions such as pollution or climate; cities with better environmental conditions can be attractive.



(I) Population Increase: Migration leads to an increase in the population of the destination region.

(ii) Economic Growth: Newcomers contribute to the economy, increasing demand for goods and services, and also contributing to the labor force.

(iii) Social Diversity: Migrants often bring with them their own cultural traditions, leading to greater cultural diversity.

(iv) Pressure on Infrastructure: Increased population can lead to pressure on existing infrastructure, including housing, transportation, and public services.

(v) Urban Sprawl: Migration can lead to physical expansion of urban areas, sometimes leading to environmental concerns.

(vi) Change in Demographic Structure: The age and gender composition of the population can change depending on the nature of the migration.

(vii) Increased Demand for Social Services: More people mean greater demand for social services like healthcare and education.




(I) Infrastructure: Well-developed infrastructure such as transportation, hotels, and restaurants facilitate tourism. A city with a well-organized and efficient public transportation system, adequate accommodation facilities, and a good network of roads tends to attract more tourists.

(ii) Safety and Stability: The political and social stability of a destination is a key factor in promoting tourism. Tourists generally prefer to visit places where there is a lower risk of crime, violence, or political instability.


(I) Natural Attractions: Physical features such as beaches, mountains, waterfalls, wildlife, and natural parks can significantly promote tourism. These features often become iconic symbols of a destination, drawing in large numbers of tourists.

(ii) Climate: The climate of a destination plays a crucial role in promoting tourism. People often choose destinations with desirable climates. For example, some people escape colder climates by visiting tropical destinations.



(I) Environmental Degradation: High numbers of tourists can cause a strain on the natural resources leading to pollution, habitat destruction, and strain on water resources.

(ii) Cultural Erosion: Over-tourism can lead to a loss of local culture and traditions.

(iii) Overcrowding: High levels of tourism can lead to overcrowding, causing discomfort for both tourists and locals.

(iv) Increased Cost of Living: Inflated prices due to tourism can affect local communities by increasing the cost of living.

(v) Economic Dependence: Heavy reliance on tourism as an economic source can lead to a risky economic situation.

(vi) Increase in Crime: Tourism can sometimes lead to an increase in crime rates, particularly petty crimes such as theft and pickpocketing.

(vii) Seasonal Unemployment: Jobs related to tourism are often seasonal, leading to periods of unemployment for workers.

number 2c



(I) Improve Infrastructure: Enhancing the local infrastructure such as roads, transportation, hotels, etc. makes a destination more accessible and comfortable for tourists.

(ii) Promote Local Culture: Showcasing the local culture, traditions, and history can attract tourists interested in cultural tourism.

(iii) Improve Safety: Ensuring the safety and security of tourists can make a destination more appealing.

(iv) Develop Eco-Tourism: Promoting environmentally-friendly tourism practices can attract a growing number of eco-conscious tourists.

(v) Marketing and Promotion: Effective marketing and promotional campaigns can raise awareness about the destination and its attractions.

(vi) Encourage Local Involvement: Involving local communities in tourism development can create a more authentic experience for tourists.

(vii) Improve Tourist Services: Providing high-quality services such as information centers, guided tours, etc. can enhance the tourist experience.

(viii) Develop and Protect Attractions: Creating new attractions and preserving existing ones can continue to draw tourists.

(3a) Industrialization refers to the process by which an economy is transformed from primarily agricultural to one based on the manufacturing of goods. Individual manual labor is often replaced by mechanized mass production, and craftsmen are replaced by assembly lines.



(I) Availability of raw materials: Industries that process and refine raw materials, like steel, need to be close to their source.

(ii) Availability of labor: The workforce is crucial to any industry. Regions with a large pool of skilled workers attract more industries.

(iii) Proximity to markets: To minimize transportation costs, industries often set up near their main markets.

(iv) Infrastructure: Good road, rail, and port facilities can influence the location of an industry.

(v) Government policy: The government can attract industries to specific areas through incentives like tax breaks and grants.

(vi) Land and capital: The availability and cost of land and capital can greatly influence where an industry is located.

(vii) Access to energy: Industries, especially heavy industries, require a lot of power. Locations with abundant energy sources are more attractive.

(viii) Environmental considerations: Locations that allow for sustainable operations while causing minimal harm to the environment are preferred,

Number 4b


(1) MANGROVE SWAMP FOREST: This vegetation zone is characterized by:


(i) Predominance of salt-tolerant mangrove trees.

(ii) It is mostly found in coastal areas, estuaries and lagoons.

(iii) The roots of the mangrove trees often form complex tangles, offering protection for a variety of species.

(iv) Due to the brackish water conditions, it supports unique ecosystems with a high degree of biodiversity.

(2) RAINFOREST VEGETATION: This zone is characterized by:


(i) Multi-layered vegetation with tall trees forming a dense canopy.

(ii) High rainfall year-round, usually more than 2000mm per year.

(iii) Rich in biodiversity, with a high number of species per area.

(iv) Presence of many epiphytes (plants that grow on other plants) and lianas (long-stemmed, woody vines).

(3) SUDAN SAVANNA: The key features of this zone are:


(i) Dominated by grasses and scattered trees, which are usually drought-resistant.

(ii) It has a wet and dry season, with a dry period that lasts longer than the wet season.

(iii) Fire is a common occurrence, especially during the dry season.

(iv) Wildlife is adapted to the conditions, with many species exhibiting migration patterns according to the seasons.


(I) Borno State

(ii) Sokoto State


(I) Land Tenure System:

The land tenure system in Nigeria, particularly in the rural areas where most of the farming takes place, can be a major hindrance to agricultural development. Traditional land ownership patterns often prevent the optimal use of the land. Since the land is communally owned, individual farmers may not have the rights or incentives to make long-term improvements, like implementing irrigation or planting trees.

Furthermore, the complexities of the system can deter investors and make it difficult for farmers to use their land as collateral for loans, thereby limiting their access to credit.

(II) Pests and Diseases:

Nigeria’s agriculture is significantly affected by pests and diseases, which can drastically reduce yield and quality of crops and livestock. Farmers often lack knowledge and resources to implement effective pest and disease management strategies. Some pests, such as the Fall Armyworm, are highly invasive and can devastate entire crop fields. Diseases like Cassava Mosaic Disease also pose a severe threat to food security in the country. The lack of access to quality, disease-resistant seedlings and the inability to afford pesticides further exacerbates these problems. Additionally, climate change effects can increase the prevalence and spread of certain pests and diseases, posing more challenges to agricultural development.





(i) Increased trade: By working together, West African states can establish common trade policies, eliminate trade barriers, and promote intra-regional trade. This can lead to increased exports, employment and economic growth.

(ii) Increased investment: International co-operation helps facilitate direct foreign investment in the region. This provides jobs, improves infrastructure and can generate new technologies for the local economy.

(iii) Regional integration: International co-operation among West African states can allow for the creation of regional arrangements like the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). By creating budgetary and monetary policies, curbing cross-border movement of people, and encouraging implement of an integration program, this makes it easier for investors to operate throughout the region.

(iv) Technology transfer: By working together, countries can share new technologies, which helps improve efficiency. It also helps spur innovation and create new products for export.

(v) Improved access to markets: International co-operation provides the opportunity to open up markets and increase competitive advantages of West African states. This helps reduce poverty and create new job opportunities.

(vi) Strengthen relations: Co-operation among West African states allows for the strengthening of bilateral and regional relations. This can lead to better security, improved political stability, and stronger economic ties with other countries in the region

NECO Geography OBJ/Theory Paper is Out

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OBJ Answer 2023 NECO Geography.

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